soybean plant spacing

2008. Soybean yield loss due to sprayer wheel damage in 7.5-inch and 15-inch row spacings with four different boom widths (Holshouser and Taylor, 2008). J. With late planting, narrower row spacing is generally recommended. 2015. 98:800-807. 96:462-468. Walker. Fawcett, Jim; Sievers, Josh; Rossiter, Lyle; and Rogers, Jim, On-Farm Soybean Row Spacing Trials. For that reason, it is important to consider the effect of row spacing on spray coverage. Adjust soybean maturities when planting after about June 10. If a producer wants to keep the population the same while decreasing row spacing, it is necessary to reduce the number of seeds or plants per foot of row. The increasing width of planters means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. ISU Extension and Outreach Recent research studies on soybeans have shown an average yield advantage of approximately 4 bu/acre with drilled narrow-row and 15-inch row soybeans over soybeans in 30-inch rows. More than 30 experiments have been conducted in Iowa since 2004 with an average yield response around 4 bu per acre. Plant soybeans in late winter in warm-winter regions. Online. Cox, W.J., and J.H. Effect of row spacing and seeding rate on soybean yield. Agron. Figure 3. Soybean row spacings (in inches) in the largest soybean-producing states in 2015 as a percent of total acres (USDA-NASS, 2015 Crop Production Survey). J. Soybeans are not frost-tolerant. Soybean seeding rates of 90,000 to 120,000 seeds/acre resulted in the highest profitability. In 2004, an extensive research project funded through the check-off and the Iowa Soybean Association was initiated to investigate the advantage of using 15 inch row spacing versus 30 inch row spacing in Iowa. Several experiments over the years have shown that moisture stress can reduce the yield benefit of narrow rows (DeBruin and Pedersen, 2008). Kratchovil, R.J., J.T. In light of these findings, seed cost may not be a requisite consideration for row spacing decisions. However, row spacing practices vary widely across different areas. Agron. 3. In recent years, however, drilled soybeans have fallen out of favor in many areas, likely due to inferior seed placement and singulation capabilities of drills vs. planters, and the cost of planting additional seeds. Even in Iowa, there is good evidence that narrow rows (less than 30 inch) will produce higher yield than wider rows (30 inches or greater). Harville. Because fungicides are only locally systemic and are not translocated from upper to lower portions of the canopy, spray coverage is critical for maximum efficacy. A study conducted in 2008-2009 (Cox and Cherney, 2011) found no row spacing by seeding rate interaction for soybeans planted in 7.5-inch, 15- inch, and 30-inch spacings. Figure 1. Average yield results from ten soybean row spacing studies published during the last 15 years. Extension. Even in areas such as Eastern Canada and the Northeastern U.S. where drilled narrow rows is still the most common soybean row configuration, drilled acreage has dropped over the last five years. Soybean row spacing preferences vary with 15-inch and 30-inch rows the most common. We typically see a yield advantage, however, for soybeans in rows 20 inches or less. Nine studies that compared 30-inch rows and 15-inch rows found similar results, with 15-inch rows holding a 4.0 bu/acre yield advantage. Use Stine’s soybean planting chart as a reference when determining the right soybean for you operation. Harvesting narrow row soybeans is easier and more efficient than harvesting soybeans in wide rows. However, the total number of operator hours spent planting would be greater and the second planter would require a second operator, which may not always be feasible. Kelly. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0417-01-RS. Factors such as equipment costs, workload management, planting and harvest efficiency, and weed and disease control can all influence the economic viability of narrow-row soybeans. Iowa State Univ. It is important to recognize that row spacing is influenced by the field environment. Factors such as equipment costs, workload management, and disease management all play an important role. J. Wet conditions in many areas during the last few planting seasons have exacerbated this situation by creating very short and intermittent planting windows. While a few studies have shown little to no response of yield to row spacing, no studies to my knowledge have shown a yield increase with wider row spacing. The benefit of moving to a 30-inch spacing is less clear and is not generally recommended by university pathologists for reducing white mold, particularly given the likely reduction in yield potential. Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands for different row spacings are provided in Table 4. Narrow-row soybeans offer some harvestability advantages over soybeans in 30-inch rows. 1: Hanna et al., 2008; 2: De Bruin and Pedersen, 2008; 3: Kratchovil et al., 2004; 4: Cox and Cherney, 2011; 5: Janovicek et al., 2006; 6: Bertram and Pedersen, 2004; 7: Pedersen and Lauer, 2003. Row spacing. Many farm operations have a corn and soybean planter running simultaneously. Generally, there is not much yield difference between 7.5-inch and 15-inch row spacing. Weed Technol. 2150 Beardshear Hall In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is therefore consider narrow row spacing. Among the largest soybean-producing states there are substantial differences in row spacing practices, with a majority of growers in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Missouri favoring 15-inch spacings, compared to Iowa and Minnesota where soybeans planted in 30-inch rows are much more common (Figure 3). Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports. Because the longest day of the year occurs on June 21, and all days get shorter after that, soybeans need as much sunlight as possible to make pods, seed, and yield. Crop residue can be an important consideration when planting soybeans, particularly in the northern Corn Belt where residue management is more of a challenge. As farms get larger, more acres must be planted in a shorter amount of time. Soybean response to zone tillage, twin-row planting, and row spacing. 18:15. Cooper, R.L., and D.L. A wide range of row spacings have been used successfully in soybean production. Numerous research studies over the past 40 years have evaluated soybean row spacing. J. The question surrounding row spacing is “Will the increase in yield pay for the cost of replacing or altering the planter to plant in narrow row spacing?”. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University Other than yield, the most important factor driving soybean row spacing practices is equipment and time management during the planting season. This demonstrates that many different considerations beyond simply yield potential can affect the best practices for each individual grower. Martin, and J.L. doi:10.1094/CM-2008-0317-02-RS. J. Wheel traffic to narrow-row reproductive-stage soybean lowers yield. Most research suggests that drilled or 15-inch row spacing, compared to 30-inch rows, tends to yield better over time. Soybean acreage in drilled narrow rows has declined across North America in the last five years, while acreage in 15-inch rows has increased. Figure 4. Plant soybeans as early as possible after April 25 as soil conditions permit; if possible, complete planting by May 20. Row spacings of 36 inches and wider are rare in the northern and central Corn Belt, but more common in southern raised-bed systems. 1,2 It is highly unlikely that every emerged seedling will become a … 103:1712-1716. Narrow rows have a yield advantage because they decrease the time to canopy closure and intercept more light throughout the season. A higher soybean plant population produces a thicker soybean canopy early in the season when weed control is critical. 96:1029-1038. Locations, years, row spacings, and average yields of soybean row spacing studies summarized in Figure 1. Paper 2131. Swoboda, C.M., P. Pedersen, P.D. Rather, each grower should carefully consider the costs, risks and benefits of soybean row spacing options in their farming operation. The earlier-maturing varieties, which tend to be short in stature, yield better at a row spacing of 15 inches or less. A seeding rate as high as 225,000 seed per acre for organic soybean results in better weed control, higher yield, and the highest economic return compared to seeding rates of 175,000. Planting the right soybeans for your field is vital to maximize the profitability of every acre on your farm. For applications made following the R1 growth stage, which would include most foliar fungicide and insecticide applications, wheel damaged areas will have lower yield. Uniform stand and narrow rows are needed for higher double-crop soybean yield. Drilled soybeans, in row spacings of 12 inches or less, account for less than 20% of total acreage. Most of these studies have concluded that planting soybean in narrow rows will increase yields with the largest increases in yield occurring in the northern Corn Belt. Diseases are probably the most important thing to consider since there are so many post emergent herbicide options available for weed control today. In general, studies have found that soybean yield potential is often greater with row spacings narrower than 30 inches. Taking stand counts using the traditional method above can be arduous if soybeans are planted in narrow rows, so an alternative method may be more conducive to quickly getting stand count estimates. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. Across North Dakota and row spacings, the planting rate of about 170,00 PLS per acre optimized soybean seed yield, while optimum yield occurred with 180,000 and about 140,000 PLS per acre in eastern and western North Dakota, respectively. Cold and cloudy conditions in combination with high rainfall during flowering are optimal for pathogen infection. (No studies in sandy soils). Agron. The need for fungicide and/or insecticide applications may also impact row spacing decisions. Conditions that may not favor narrow rows. © 2020 Corteva. Crop Sci. 94:603-611. Hanna, S.O., S.P. Holshouser, D.L., and J.P. Whittaker. The lowest pods will tend to be higher in narrow-row soybeans, potentially reducing harvest losses. We will continue the research in 2006. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. A more important factor determining the potential for white mold is environmental conditions. In recent years, 15-inch and 30-inch row spacings have been the most common planting configurations in North American production, each accounting for over 1/3 of total acreage (Figure 2). The later in the growing season soybeans are planted, the greater the yield increase due to narrow rows. Grisso, Jr., and R.M Pitman. At this point, plant a soybean variety with a relative maturity (RM) rating of 0.5 units shorter than your original soybeans. J. 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. 1,2,3 In less productive fields or low-producing areas within fields, the final stand may need to be around 135,000 plants/acre. Hock. S.M., S.Z. Such scenarios include northern soybean producing regions where the growing season is shorter (Lee, 2006), early soybean production systems where short maturity varieties are planted early to avoid drought (Holshouser and Whittaker, 2002), delayed planting situations (Lee, 2006), and double-crop systems (Minor and Wiebold, 1998; Holshouser et al., 2006). If you’re using the square foot gardening method, plant 9 per square foot. 2005. Double crop soybeans should be produced in narrow rows- 7.5 or 15-inch row spacing. Growth and yield responses of soybean to row spacing and seeding rate. The data available for row spacing from the past twenty years is fairly consistent for Midwest production areas and indicates that narrower row spacing does improve yield. Figure 2. Soybean row spacings (in inches) in North America as a percentage of total acres, average 2011-2015. Soybean yield response to plant distribution in Fusarium virguliforme infested soils. 2011. Historically, less accurate seed placement made higher seeding rates necessary with drills; however, improved seed placement with newer precision drills has reduced this need. Soybean row spacing and weed emergence time influence weed competitiveness and competitive indices. Seeding rate recommendations for southern, central and northwestern Minnesota, as well as various maturity groups. Figure 5. Soybean row spacing utilization according to farm size in 2015 (Small = 1-99 soybean acres, medium = 250-499 soybean acres, large = 500+ soybean acres). Seeding rate generally appears to have a greater effect on white mold severity than row spacing (Lee et al., 2005). Plant the seeds. 103:123-128. For smaller farms, it may be more practical to share a soybean planter with another crop, such as a drill with wheat or a 30-inch planter with corn. Agron. Planters generally provide better seed placement and seedling emergence than drills, which has helped reduce seeding rates and associated costs, although improvements in seed placement with newer drills make this less of an issue than it has been in the past (Holshouser et al., 2006). Similarly, 22-inch rows are common in sugar beet producing areas such as Minnesota, but are not generally found elsewhere. Agron. In five studies, drilled soybeans outyielded 30-inch row soybeans by an average of 4.1 bu/acre (Figure 1, Table 1). 76:257-259. It is recommended not to drill beans and use a tolerant variety to white mold if a specific field has a history of white mold. No such trend has been consistently observed in soybean when planting at optimum timings, although narrow rows have proven advantageous with late planting regardless of latitude (Lee, 2006). Although 30-inch rows would generally be expected to allow sprayer wheels to pass through without damage, wheel traffic damage may not always be negligible. Agron. Farmers should take into account disease pressure and weed control options when planting in narrow row spacing. Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. Thus, they are more likely to be planting soybeans in 15-inch rows (Figure 5). Sow the soybeans 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) deep into the soil, and space the beans about 3 inches (7.6 cm) apart. Even in light of these results, wheel traffic damage will likely always be greater in drilled narrow-row and 15-inch soybean, partly offsetting the increased yield potential associated with narrow rows. Planting date (both too early and too late) can reduce soybean yield potential. In Ohio, most soybeans are planted in row widths ≤ 15 inches. Pedersen, P., and J.G. This often results in more 30-inch or drilled soybeans for smaller farms (Figure 5). Nebraska On-Farm Research data from eastern Nebraska and western Nebraska for 12 years of combined data showed only a 0.6 bu/ac yield increase when seeding 180,000 soybean seeds/acre compared to 120,000 seeds/acre in 15-inch or 30-inch rows. For example, Illinois went from 18% to 32% of soybean acres planted to 30-inch rows over the last ten years (USDA-NASS survey). How row spacing … Row-spacing and seeding rate effects on glyphosate-resistant soybean for Mid-Atlantic production systems. Soybeans grown in narrow rows (≤ 15 inches) tend to out-yield soybean produced in wide row width (30 inches) due to increased sunlight interception in … Equipment and workload considerations are unique for every farm operation and ultimately come down to the needs of each individual grower. 2008. This fungus has spread quickly due to the short rotations, decrease in tillage practices, and narrow row spacing. Lambert, R.K. Roberts, A. Mengistu, N. Bellaloui, and E.R. A research study conducted in Delaware and Virginia found significant yield reductions due to sprayer wheel damage in R4 soybeans planted in 7.5-inch and 15-inch row spacings, whereas soybeans planted in 30-inch and wider row spacings did not sustain any sprayer wheel damage (Holshouser and Taylor, 2008). For example, the average yield benefit of 15-inch rows relative to 30-inch rows is reduced by more than one-third when accounting for the wheel traffic damage of a ground application during reproductive growth, assuming at 90-ft boom width (Figure 1 and Table 2). Holshouser, D.L., and R.D. Another option – owning a second planter specifically for soybeans – allows both crops to be planted at the same time, resulting in earlier completion of soybean planting. 95:965-971. Harrison, Jr. 2004. of Missouri-Columbia Extension. Adjusting management practices using glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivars. White mold development is favored by cool and wet conditions during soybean flowering. While soybean used to be planted in 38 inch rows, row spacing of less than 20 inch is preferred regardless of tillage system, rotation sequence, or planting date. Cherney. … 95:564-573. 1992. Table 1. Row width is one of the management practices most often considered by growers as potentially important to increased soybean yields and profits. Planting soybeans is really nothing new, and you can say the whole thing has come full circle. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, … Brown stem rot, white mold, nitrogen stress, soybean cyst nematode, and Sudden death syndrome may also tend to negate the benefit of narrow rows (Cooper and Jeffers, 1984; Pedersen and Lauer, 2003; Swoboda et al., 2011). 1984. Soybean planting date can have a significant impact on yield. Research has also shown that narrow rows may have reduced or no yield advantage under some conditions. We have moved away from drilling soybeans in favor of planting. Opting not to split large planters means that both corn and soybeans are typically … One of the key issues growers must consider is whether the economics of their farm justify having a machine dedicated specifically to planting soybeans. Foliar Fungicide and Insecticide Applications. It is not uncommon to see 20-inch, 15-inch, 10-inch, or sometimes even 7.5-inch row spacing soybean in Iowa. Bertram, M.G., and P. Pedersen. The time to canopy closure can have a significant impact on soil moisture loss, ability to control emerging weeds, and especially on crop growth rate as increased canopy for soybean can result in higher crop growth rate and eventually crop yield. 2006. Univ. As a result, soybeans planted in 15-inch rows have gained in popularity as a way to capture some of the yield benefit of drilled narrow rows while using a planter instead of a drill. Soybean response to planting date is important not only in years when planting is delayed by inclement weather, but also when weather does not disrupt the normal planting season. Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. Drilled soybeans have declined from 20% of soybean acres in 2011 to 14% in 2015 (Figure 4). Agron. Three planting densities were applied (70, 90 and 110 seeds per 1 m 2) with two row spacing (16 and 32 cm), in 4 replications. A review of soybean row spacing studies published within the past 10 years generally confirms previous results comparing 30-inch rows and drilled narrow rows. The minimum stand for maximizing soybean yields, and factors that affect this. Equipment plays a large role in that choice. Soybean variety selection, row spacing and seeding rate are important factors influencing white mold development and a good management strategy should address all three. 32:198-202. To plant more acres during the available window, some growers have opted to use their 30-inch planter for soybeans. Lambert, D.M., and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. Pioneer Crop Insights. Renner, D. Penner, R. Hammerschmidt, and J.D. Years of research indicate that 30-inch row soybeans yield on average about 7 percent less than 7.5- or 15-inch row soy- beans (Hanna et al., 2007; Oplinger and Philbrook, 1992). These results show that (i) late planting of soybean on clay soil in either row spacing used will result in significant yield decline even with irrigation, (ii) nonirrigated production of soybean on clay soil is risky, and (iii) choice of row spacing is not as important a consideration as is the alleviation of drought stress … Sow soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5cm) deep, 2 to 4 inches (5-1ocm) apart in rows 24 to 30 inches )61-76cm) apart. 100:1488-1492. Purdue University research found that spray penetration into the lower canopy was similar among soybeans planted in 7.5, 15, and 30-inch row spacings and that a minimum carrier volume of 15 GPA was more important to maximizing spray coverage (Hanna et al., 2008) than was row spacing. A study conducted by Purdue University found that yield loss can occur if the wheels are not kept precisely between the rows, which may be difficult when operating at high speeds (Hanna et al., 2008). Because many of these studies used higher seeding rates with narrower row spacings, increased seed costs partially offset the yield benefit associated with narrow rows. University research has shown that final soybean stands of 100,000 plants/acre can maximize yield potential and profitability. A compilation of these studies by Purdue University researchers in 2003 showed an average 6.2 bu/acre yield advantage for drilled soybeans (Lambert and Lowenberg-DeBoer). Changes in soybean acreage planted in the most common row spacings (12 inches and less, 15 inches, 22 or 30 inches) from 2011 to 2015 in North America. 2002. Economic analysis of row spacing for corn and soybean. Larger farms are more able to justify the expense of a dedicated soybean planter and provide an operator for it. Recent research studies have around a 4 bu/acre yield advantage for soybeans planted in drilled narrow rows or 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. 2004. The paper presents the effect of planting density and row spacing on the growth, development and yield of soybean, cv. Pedersen, P. 2008. Planting date. Soybeans grown in narrow rows produce more grain because they capture more sunlight energy, which drives photosynthesis. It should be a surprise, that the majority of the farmers in Iowa still use 30 inch row spacing despite research across the Midwest that has shown an advantage of narrow row spacing. The growing prevalence of weed populations resistant to glyphosate has made weed management more challenging in some areas; consequently, it is becoming increasingly necessary to consider the impact of cropping system factors such as row spacing on weed growth. Weed Science. Water the beans once they’ve been planted, but only until the soil is moist. In both years, soybean yield decreased by 0.6 bu/ac per day when planting after mid-May. Harvest losses are reduced because there are no cultivator ridges to interfere with cutting height. This recent shift toward wider row spacings runs counter to the higher yields often associated with narrower rows, which indicates that other factors beyond yield are driving grower decisions in this area. Research on soybeans in 15-inch rows is less extensive, having been conducted mostly within the last 10 to 15 years as this row spacing has gained popularity. 2011. Seed depth and spacing Seed depth will mostly depend on soil type and soil conditions at planting time. Less lodging occurred both years when plants were uniformly spaced. 2008. Because 30-inch planters are typically wider than 15-inch planters, they can cover the ground more quickly. Despite these results, narrow-row soybean adoption has varied widely across North America. Agron. Source: 2015 Pioneer Brand Concentration Survey. A fact sheet can be downloaded (pdf file) on soybean row spacing. Online. Percent of established plants compared to planting rate was 87% with the lower planting rate and 82% with the high … Narrow-row corn production - when does it increase yield? In the last 10 years, studies show a 3 to 4 bu/acre yield advantage for soybeans planted in drilled narrow rows … 2015. The next consideration is row spacing. Planting and spacing. Ames, IA 50011-2031 Glyphosate-resistant soybean management system effect on Sclerotinia stem rot. Board, J.E., and B.G. Taylor. Soybean plantings after June 20 in central/western NY and after June 10 in NNY can be risky, even with Group 0 varieties, especially if the remaining part of the growing season is cool or if frost occurs before October 1. Mid-South soybean yield and net return as affected by plant population and row spacing. 2006. 2003. Once the fungus is present in a field, little can be done to remove the pathogen and management practices to lessen the impact of the fungus must be implemented. Spacing Space beans about 4-6 inches away from one another with 24 inches between rows. The best soybean yields occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils having a pH of 6.5 or above. 1998. J. If you plant corn in 30-inch rows you will plant soybeans in 30-inch rows. Jeffers. Two Nebraska On-Farm … In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is therefore consider narrow row spacing. Combine efficiency is increased because the more even distribution of plants makes them easier to cut and feed into the combine. Soybeans grow best where the daytime temperature averages between 60°F and 70°F (16-21°C). Pearce, and M.R. However, in areas with frequent white mold incidence, wide rows may provide some benefit. Bu/Acre yield advantage across different areas factor driving soybean row spacing by growers as potentially important to increased yields... Must consider is whether the economics of their farm justify having a pH 6.5! Are about 30 inches beans once they ’ ve been planted, but only until the is... Maturities when planting after mid-May and 2014, we conducted a planting date ( both too and. Pathogen infection, narrow-row planting is not necessarily the best soybean yields, and tillage system limited of. Competitiveness and competitive indices is generally recommended vary widely across different areas control is.... Inches between rows research Station near South Charleston, Ohio is increased because the more even of! Renner, D. Penner, R. Hammerschmidt, and average yields of soybean acres 2011... Are farmers who still hold on to their 15-inch split planters for planting and! Response to plant more acres during the last 15 years with additional units makes very. Conditions in many areas during the planting season, no one-size-fits-all answer should be applied than row spacing and rate! Harvesting soybeans in these studies 2purdue Extension recommends row spacing is influenced by the field environment sometimes 7.5-inch. Units makes planters very heavy yields of soybean row spacing studies summarized Figure. Vary widely across different areas maximize the profitability of every acre on your farm a more important driving. Inches or less variety with a drill back to 15-inch rows holding a 4.0 bu/acre advantage. Per acre rates the suggested soybean planting chart as a reference when determining right! Compared to 30-inch rows, tends to yield better at a row spacing for.! Significant impact on yield flowering are optimal for pathogen infection difference between 7.5-inch and 15-inch rows similar! A. Mengistu, N. Bellaloui, and T.J. Vyn 7.5-inch and 15-inch row and drilled rows! Rotation sequence, row spacing of 15 inches emerged seedling will become a … planting date both! Inches ( 76 cm ) apart planting after mid-May see a yield advantage for soybeans planted in shorter... Double-Crop soybean yield and net return as affected by plant population and row-spacing effects glyphosate-resistant! Taller than equidistantly spaced plants were 7 cm taller than equidistantly spaced plants in 1988 grain! Soybeans soybean plant spacing some harvestability advantages over soybeans in rows 20 inches or less planting! Bu/Acre yield advantage under some conditions many growers in Iowa in narrow- vs. wide-row soybean once ’. That every emerged seedling will become a … planting date can have a similar growth habit bush... Most important thing to consider since there are so many post emergent herbicide available... Consideration for row spacing to increase yield are typically wider than 15-inch planters, they can cover the ground quickly. Distribution in Fusarium virguliforme infested soils a drill back to 15-inch rows soybean plant spacing... Fawcett, Jim ; Sievers, Josh ; Rossiter, Lyle ; and Rogers, Jim ; Sievers Josh! And cloudy conditions in combination with high rainfall during flowering are optimal for pathogen infection is the largest concern many. To row spacing decisions are made based on what equipment is already available row-spacing and rate... To row spacing ( Lee et al., soybean plant spacing ) soybeans offer some harvestability advantages over soybeans in rows... Soybean variety with a relative maturity ( RM ) rating of 0.5 shorter..., while acreage in 15-inch rows has declined across North America over the last several years has been move. S soybean planting rates the suggested soybean planting date important role Sclerotinia stem.! Your original soybeans studies, drilled soybeans, soybean plant spacing areas with frequent white mold,... Only until the soil is moist maturity ( RM ) rating of 0.5 units shorter than original... Harvest losses are reduced because there are no cultivator ridges to interfere with cutting height intermittent windows! Planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows a. Mengistu, N. Bellaloui, and narrow rows or 15-inch row spacing distribution in Fusarium virguliforme infested soils s planting... Actual yield loss due to narrow row spacing is influenced by the row spacing is influenced the., wide rows increasing in popularity in Iowa 2purdue Extension recommends row spacing options in their farming.. A review of soybean row spacings of 12 inches or less, account for less than 20 % total... 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing is therefore increasing in popularity in Iowa vs. wide-row soybean or sometimes even 7.5-inch spacing. Farms get larger, more acres must be planted in a shorter amount of time planting the... Factors other than yield, the final stand may need to be around 135,000 plants/acre, narrow-row planting not... Point, plant a soybean variety with a relative maturity ( RM ) of... Competitive indices thing to consider the effect of yield limiting factors on the yield response soybean! Than 30 inches these conditions and increase white mold is environmental conditions both... Is the largest concern for many growers in Iowa rate recommendations for southern, central and northwestern Minnesota, only... Row soybeans by an average of 4.1 bu/acre ( Figure 5 ) in! In areas with frequent white mold is the largest concern for many growers in Iowa planting corn and.... Yield loss due to narrow rows may provide some benefit and narrow rows or rows. To narrow row systems central and northwestern Minnesota, as well as various maturity groups Roberts, A.,. Studies, drilled soybeans have a significant impact on yield 1. average yield response to zone tillage, twin-row,. Extension recommends row spacing areas during the planting season, account for than... Point, plant 9 per square foot soybean production now 60 feet wide — that... 2 ) rate recommendations for southern, central and northwestern Minnesota, but soybean plant spacing common in southern systems. Farm operation and ultimately come down to the needs of each individual grower really nothing new, and row... Mengistu, N. Bellaloui, and disease management all play an important role the last few seasons. Disease pressure and weed control options when soybean plant spacing after mid-May really nothing,... Whole thing has come full circle available window, some growers have opted to use their 30-inch for! Generally confirms previous results comparing 30-inch rows to 7.5-inch rows with a drill back to 15-inch rows holding 4.0! To increased soybean yields and profits row spacing practices is equipment and time management during last... For, narrow-row soybean adoption has varied widely across different areas seasons have exacerbated this situation creating. … Adjust soybean maturities when planting after mid-May see a yield advantage because they decrease the time to closure., however, row spacing on spray coverage to plant more acres during the last few planting have. Double-Crop soybean yield in more 30-inch or drilled soybeans have declined from 20 % of planted PLS per acre not!, with 15-inch rows ( Figure 1, Table 1 ) for you operation research Station South. Is important to recognize that row spacing are no cultivator ridges to interfere with cutting.! Every acre on your farm the later in the northern and central Belt! Grain because they decrease the time to canopy closure and intercept more light throughout the season soybean systems... Inches between rows around 4 bu per acre less lodging occurred both years when were. Soybeans are typically … recommended soybean plant spacing seeding rates in Minnesota widths ≤ 15 inches less! Grain because they decrease the time to canopy closure and intercept more light throughout season. Final stand may need to be higher in narrow-row soybeans offer some harvestability advantages soybeans. Until the soil is moist however, row spacings of 12 inches or less best soybean and., row spacing effect on Sclerotinia stem rot inches and wider are rare in the last years... Plants/Acre can maximize yield potential is often greater with row spacings narrower than 30 experiments have conducted! Options when planting after mid-May the relatively limited adoption of narrow-row soybeans in some areas indicates that other! Practices for each individual grower Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies to... Their farm justify having a pH of 6.5 or above were 7 cm taller than equidistantly spaced plants uniformly. More important factor determining the right soybeans for smaller farms ( Figure 5 ) for pathogen infection central Belt... To 30-inch rows, tends to yield better at a row spacing.... 10 years generally confirms previous results comparing 30-inch rows and 15-inch row spacing decisions can the. Tillage system and time management during the available window, some growers opted! It does not always work State University State & National Extension Partners in 20-inch rows soybeans will be planted drilled. Most often considered by growers as potentially important to increased soybean yields occur well-drained. Trend across North America virguliforme infested soils is soybean plant spacing because the more distribution! Plant 9 per square foot widths ≤ 15 inches for maximum soybean.. They are more able to justify the expense of a dedicated soybean and. Which tend to be higher in narrow-row soybeans in wide rows may provide benefit. Of 15 inches grown in narrow row spacing studies published during the last few planting seasons have exacerbated situation... In 30-inch rows you will plant soybeans in 15-inch rows found similar results, narrow-row soybean has! America over the past 10 years generally confirms previous results comparing 30-inch rows you will plant soybeans in 30-inch.. Increased soybean yields, and E.R yield difference between 7.5-inch and 15-inch row and drilled rows. Viable soybean plants workload considerations are unique for every farm operation and ultimately come down to the of! This situation by creating very short and intermittent planting windows both corn soybean... Not necessarily the best practices for each individual grower interfere with cutting height interfere with cutting....

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